Micturition is the process of passing urine in humans. Normally, the total daily volume of urine by a person is more or less 500 ml. This quantity changes depending on several factors such as atmospheric pressure, physical exertion and fluid intake. The nature of how the bowels are evacuated (such as loose bowel movement) also affects the total quantity of urine passed. Below are the most common abnormalities that have been observed in micturition.
Large or Small Quantities of Urine
An increase in the quantity of urine can be caused by several things. It can be caused by taking in a lot of fluids, especially diuretics like alcohol and tea. It can also be caused by certain medical conditions such as chronic nephritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperparathyroidism.
A decrease in the quantity of urine is also caused by a number of factors which include taking in less fluid, losing a lot of fluids through other channels like perspiration, diarrhea, vomiting or fever. It can also be caused by medical conditions such as acute nephritis, lowered blood pressure, and severe gastroenteritis.
Increased or Decreased Frequency of Urination
Frequent or less frequent urination can also be considered an abnormality.
An increase in the frequency of urination can be caused by:
- cystitis, or the growth of stones
- the application of pressure outside of the bladder which may be caused by uterine or ovarian tumors
- a pregnant uterus which is retroverted
- renal colic
- an enlarged prostate (experienced by elderly men)
Most of the time, frequent urination results in small amounts of urine being passed.
Other Abnormalities in Micturition
Aside from the quantity and frequency of micturition, there are still other types of abnormalities that have been observed which include the following:
Pain – Experiencing pain while in micturition can be due to a distended renal pelvis. It can also be caused by an obstruction in the ureter which retards urine flow. Aside from the pain, frequent urination in small quantities is also experienced.
Retention – This happens when the bladder retains the urine which causes it to swell. This hypogastrium cystic swelling looks like a tumor and is often mistaken as one. However, this swelling will disappear as soon as the bladder is emptied.
Enuresis – This applies to children who urinate in their sleep at night. Enuresis can be because of thyroid deficiency, enlarged tonsils, or intestinal parasites.
Suppression – This happens when the kidneys do not secrete urine or the bladder does not allow urine to enter. Thus, there is no urge to urinate, as the bladder is empty.