Rosacea is chronic erythematous acne-like benign skin condition. This condition mostly affects Caucasians and fair skin individuals. Rosacea affects both genders but it is more common in women. In 2010, an estimated 45 million people were affected with rosacea worldwide.
The main symptoms of this condition include red or pink patches, small red bumps, red cysts, tiny visible broken blood vessels and irritated eyes. Most people with this condition do not even know that they have rosacea. Many assume that they just flush or blush easily.
It is sometimes called adult acne because this condition affects middle age adults usually 35 to 60 years old. Unlike the true acne, adult patients do not outgrow Rosacea. There are periods or remission and exacerbation with rosecea. At times, the red patches do not appear, and at times they appear in mild or severe state. Triggers are known to cause flushing and blushing in rosacea. Extreme temperatures, foods and medications are some of the causes for developing rosacea.
Contrary to other beliefs, rosacea is not infectious or contagious. There is no evidence that it can be transmitted from direct contacts. Red patches manifest in the central region of the face. Persistent redness or transient flushing occurs mainly on the forehead, chin, and lower half of the nose. Rosacea can also affect the neck, ear, scalp and chest.
There are four subtypes of rosacea, namely Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea, Papulopustular Rosacea, Phymatous Rosacea and Ocular Rosacea.
• Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea – This is characterized by permanent redness with a possibility of blushing and flushing easily. Telangiectasias, burning or itching, occurs with this type.
• Papulopustular Rosacea – In this type, parts of the affected area may have permanent redness together with pustules that last 1 to 4 days. This type of rosacea can sometimes be misidentified as acne.
• Phymatous Rosacea – This is characterized by enlargement of the nose, skin thickening, and irregular surface nodularities.
• Ocular Rosacea – Also called eye rosacea, this is inflammation of the eye with symptoms of burning, dryness, redness and a gritty eye feeling.
The cause of the disease is still unknown. Some studies have claimed that intestinal bacteria, démodé mites, environmental triggers, emotions, infections, and elevated levels of the peptide catholicizing may cause the condition.
Treatment of this condition involves oral tetracycline antibiotics, topical antibiotics such as metronidazole, and laser therapy. The goal of treating rosacea is not to eradicate the condition because there are no available direct treatments. Instead, treatments are centered to reduce inflammation and redness.